manganese in 1774/
south africa, Ukrain
Johan Gottlieb Gahn, a Swedish chemist, by heating the mineral


It is gray-white, resembling __iron__, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and decomposes cold water slowly. Manganese is used to form many important alloys. In steel, manganese improves rolling and forging qualities, strength, toughness, stiffness, wear resistance, hardness, and hardenability.
With __aluminum__ and __antimony__, and especially with small amounts of __copper__, it forms highly ferromagnetic alloys.

Manganese metal is ferromagnetic only after special treatment. The pure metal exists in four allotropic forms. The alpha form is stable at ordinary temperature; gamma manganese, +which changes to alpha at ordinary to be flexible, so Uses

Uses The dioxide (pyrolusite) is used as a depolarizer in dry cells, and is used to "decolorize" glass that is colored green by impurities of iron. Manganese by itself colors glass an amethyst color, and is responsible for the color of true amethyst. The dioxide is also used in the preparation of __oxygen__ and __chlorine__, and in drying black paints. The permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in quantitative analysis and in medicine.
Manganese is widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom. It is an important trace element and may be essential for utilization of vitamin B1.
ft, easily cut, and capable of being bent.

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Works Cited
"Johan Gottlieb Gahn (Swedish mineralogist) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.
"Manganese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2009. <>.
"Periodic Table Of The Elements." Student Handbook 2009-2010 Aug. 2009: 109. Print.
"WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Manganese | naturally occurring isotopes data." WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2009. <>.

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